By the National Cancer Institute

BETHESDA, Md., May 31, 2012 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ — Many people who fear cancer don’t realize that some types of cancer are preventable. Cancer of the colon or rectum (together referred to as colorectal cancer) is one of these. What’s more, colorectal cancer can often be treated effectively if it is found early enough.

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Regrettably, African Americans (both men and women) are more likely than people of any other racial/ethnic group in the United States to develop colorectal cancer, and also to die from it. Nearly 17,000 African Americans will develop colorectal cancer this year. Only prostate, breast, and lung cancer kill more African Americans.

Doctors don’t know exactly why African Americans are harder hit with this disease, but they do know that many cases and deaths could be avoided if African Americans knew about––and followed––recommended strategies for prevention and early detection. Here are some things to keep in mind about colorectal cancer:

Colorectal Cancer and Precancers Can Be Detected Early

Most colorectal cancers develop from a certain type of polyp, called an adenoma. Polyps begin as small growths on the inner lining of the rectum or the colon. A number of different tests can be used to check if people have polyps or colorectal cancer. Polyps can often be detected by a colonoscopy, a sigmoidoscopy, or a fecal occult blood test, and then removed before they have a chance to develop into cancer. Some of the tests are done at your doctor’s office, and others are done at home using a kit that your doctor gives you.

Some polyps can grow and develop into cancer without any real symptoms. So, unless you are checked regularly for polyps, you could develop colorectal cancer that will be harder to treat by the time symptoms appear.

There are two ways to reduce your risk of colorectal cancer. One is to be sure that you undergo regular screening—and follow-up with effective diagnosis and treatment when screening finds a possible problem, such as large polyps or a cancer. The other is to know––and try to reduce––the risk factors for colorectal cancer that you have the power to change.

Talk To Your Doctor about Regular Screening

Colorectal cancer is more likely to occur as people get older. Many experts recommend that both men and women start getting screened beginning at age 50.

People should talk with their doctor about when to begin screening for colorectal cancer, what tests to have, the benefits and harms of each test, and how often to get screened. Common considerations include your age, your family’s history of colorectal cancer, the convenience of the test and the preparation required for it, your insurance coverage, and other factors.

Although some people may feel embarrassed about the idea of colorectal cancer screening and are worried about some of the procedures that are used, colorectal cancer screening decreases the risk of dying from colon cancer. So, it’s important to push past any reluctance and talk with your doctor to learn more.   

Think about Changing Your Lifestyle––Even Just a Little

A number of studies show a link between certain “lifestyle factors” and people’s chances of getting colorectal cancer–and other cancers as well. People who drink three or more alcoholic beverages per day are at increased risk of colorectal cancer, as are people who are obese. Those who engage in regular physical activity have a lower risk. Daily aspirin also decreases risk, but it may cause intestinal bleeding and other side effects, and it’s important to find out from your doctor whether it is right for you.

Take time to learn as much as you can and share the information with people you love. The National Cancer Institute is a great resource for this information.  See video.

NCI leads the National Cancer Program and the NIH effort to dramatically reduce the burden of cancer and improve the lives of cancer patients and their families, through research into prevention and cancer biology, the development of new interventions, and the training and mentoring of new researchers. For more information about cancer, please visit the NCI web site at www.cancer.gov (or m.cancer.gov from your mobile device) or call NCI’s Cancer Information Service at 1-800-4-CANCER (1-800-422-6237). More articles and videos in the culturally relevant Lifelines series are available at www.cancer.gov/lifelines.

Editor’s Note:  The following article is part of the monthly Lifelines education and awareness print series that the National Cancer Institute provides to African American media outlets.

SOURCE National Cancer Institute

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CHICAGO (Reuters) – Colorectal cancer patients treated with a follow-up round of Avastin fare better than those given chemotherapy alone after their disease has worsened, according to results of a large clinical trial.

Avastin, sold by Roche, is approved as a first-line or second-line treatment for colorectal cancer, but not for both. Sales of the drug, also known as bevacizumab, totaled $5.3 billion Swiss francs ($5.5 billion) last year.

“By simply switching chemotherapy drugs when the cancer progresses and continuing with bevacizumab, we can make second-line treatment even more powerful,” said Dr. Dirk Arnold, director of Germany’s Hubertus Wald Tumor Center of University Cancer Center Hamburg, and a trial investigator.

First-line treatment is initial treatment, while second-line treatment occurs after cancer starts showing signs of progression.

Avastin is an antibody that blocks vascular endothelial growth factor, or VEGF, a protein tumors need to grow nutrient-providing blood vessels. It is approved in the United States for treating glioblastoma, colorectal, lung and kidney cancers.

“A fundamental feature and importance of this study is that it does confirm our hypothesis that continuing to inhibit VEGF throughout the lifetime of a tumor can reduce its growth and survival,” said Sandra Horning, head of global development at Roche’s Genentech unit.

The Phase III study involved 820 patients with metastatic, inoperable colorectal cancer who had been treated with standard first-line chemotherapy and Avastin. Once their disease worsened, they were randomized to receive either Avastin and a different chemo drug, or the chemo drug and a placebo.

Patients in the Avastin group lived for a median of 11.2 months, compared with 9.8 months for the chemotherapy-alone group. The research was presented on Sunday at a meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

Genentech said some doctors were already using Avastin as a follow-up regimen for colon cancer patients who had relapsed, and it is talking with regulators about changing the drug’s label to include the latest findings.

(Reporting By Deena Beasley; Editing by Peter Cooney)

WASHINGTON (Reuters) – At the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, pharmacists are using old-fashioned paper spreadsheets to track their stock of drugs in short supply – a task that takes several hours each day.

Most of the hospital’s medicines – an estimated $100-million supply a year – are tracked by automated systems that allow for quick reorders when the supply runs low. But these automated systems, designed to help the hospital avoid purchases and storage costs of unused pills and vials, do not work if it is uncertain when the next batch of drugs will come in.

A few hundred medicines make the list of drugs in short supply: anesthetics, drugs for nausea and nutrition, infection treatments and diarrhea pills. A separate list has scarce cancer drugs for leukemia or breast cancer.

“Now we have to go through the pharmacy and count those drugs on a daily basis … to make sure we don’t run out,” said Ed Szandzik, director of pharmacy services at the hospital for over a decade.

The growing scarcity of sterile, injectable drugs is one of the biggest issues confronting hospitals across the country, and will be a key issue at the annual American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting in Chicago this weekend.

Health officials blame the shortages on industry consolidation that has left only a handful of generic manufacturers of these drugs, even as the number of drugs going off-patent is growing. Some drugmakers have been plagued by manufacturing problems that have shut down multiple plants or production lines, while others have stopped producing a treatment when profit margins erode too far.

Some medicines have been periodically short in the past, doctors and pharmacists say, but the number of drug shortages has escalated in recent years, jumping from 56 in 2006 to 250 last year, according to U.S. Food and Drug Administration figures.

Generic drugmakers like U.S.-based Hospira Inc and Israeli Teva Pharmaceutical Industries say they are building new facilities to prevent future shortages.

But in the meantime, pharmacies around the country are counting pills, begging neighboring hospitals for extra supplies and scouring the Internet for news of additional supply disruptions.

When rumors surface of an impending shortage, some pharmacies rush to buy up more than they need, likely leading to bigger shortages, analysts and other pharmacists said.

All of this requires regular attention from hospitals to manage the crisis. At Children’s National Medical Center in Washington, D.C., pharmacists and administrators meet weekly to discuss just how dire the situation is for different medicines.

“Every Wednesday before we have that (meeting), I have a bit of anxiety,” said Ursula Tachie-Menson, acting chief of the hospital’s pharmacy division. She spends about 30 percent of her time each week addressing shortage-related problems.

“Out of all the (21) years I have been practicing, these drug shortages have been one of the biggest challenges,” she said.

EARLY WARNING SYSTEM

The FDA has been acting under an October executive order from President Barack Obama to fill in the gaps. It has had success getting an early warning from drug companies when they foresee a new shortage, allowing the agency to persuade other manufacturers to increase their production or look overseas to guarantee supply.

“I can tell you that there’s not a single company I’m aware of out there that isn’t talking to the FDA,” said David Gaugh, head of regulatory sciences at the Generic Pharmaceutical Association, referring to the trade group’s members.

The FDA said early notification has helped prevent 128 shortages in six months. It also estimates the rate of new shortages is slowing, with half the number of new scarce drugs this year compared to last.

But surveys and anecdotes continue to pile up, showing doctors’ efforts to find scarce drugs have not gotten easier. This month, a website for U.S. oncologists, MDLinx, surveyed 200 doctors and found more than 90 percent of them have experienced shortages of key cancer drugs.

CANCER, ANESTHESIA, NUTRITION

A clinical nutrition group, the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, found that 70 percent of the 800-member nurses, doctors, and pharmacists who responded to an online survey said they had seen shortages of adult injectable multi-vitamins, used for basic nutrition for patients with intestinal issues.

More than a quarter were not giving their patients multi-vitamins because of the shortages, placing them at risk of severe vitamin deficiencies that can lead to issues like anemia, due to a lack of folate, or scurvy, which happens when people do not get vitamin C.

In extreme cases, a deficiency of a type of B vitamin called thiamine can lead to cardiac arrest or death.

“This is an act of daily living for people now,” said Jay Mirtallo, president of the group. “How that can be acceptable, I don’t understand.”

When a drug is not available, doctors have to seek alternatives, which may not work as well or cost more money. Others have to ration limited supplies of a life-saving treatment to only those who need it most.

Dr. Steven Allen, a specialist in blood cancers at North Shore University Hospital in New York, recently treated a young woman who had suffered several relapses of a life-threatening cancer known as acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Allen found a combination that involved thiotepa, an older drug his patient had not tried and could tolerate.

“When I ordered it, I was informed that there was none available, and it couldn’t be obtained,” said Allen, also chair of the committee on practice at the American Society of Hematology. He substituted a similar drug, but one that the woman had already taken. “We tried to make up a dose that was equivalent to thiotepa and hoped for the best. … But I think it may have compromised her care.”

On May 14, the FDA announced it would allow temporary imports of thiotepa made by Italian company Adienne Pharma & Biotech, to relieve manufacturing delays at Bedford, Ohio-based Bedford Laboratories, a unit of the German company Fresenius Kabi that is the only approved manufacturer for the United States. Bedford said in April it does not know when further shipments would be available once its supplies run out.

Imports have not helped anesthesiologists like Jason Soch, who hears about a new shortage nearly every week during his rotations at several surgical centers in Philadelphia. These are often “workhorse” drugs such as fentanyl, midazolam and propofol, used every day during surgery.

“It seems like as soon as one drug is no longer in shortage, we get an email from the hospital pharmacist that they’re on their last box of another,” he said. Every disruption forces doctors to change dosing, or give new drug combinations they may not be as familiar with.

“I didn’t envision this when I went to anesthesia,” Soch said. “I’d figured we’d have whatever we needed.”

SCRAMBLING FOR A FIX

The problem has inspired some creative solutions, like a drug shortages mobile application called RxShortages that allows medical and pharmacy staff to track new drug shortages posted on websites, including the FDA‘s. Mick Schroeder, a pharmacy resident who created the app, said it has been downloaded about 25,000 times.

Brooke Bernhardt, an oncology pharmacist at Texas Children’s Hospital, said she checks RxShortages at least once a day.

“Unfortunately, at any point we expect a drug to go on back order,” she said.

Ed Szandzik, the pharmacy director at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit, admits he would buy a larger quantity of drugs than usual if it became available.

“If I have to get one or two months’ supply, I’ll buy it, because our patients need it,” he said. “Hoarding is in the eye of the beholder.”

Some distributors and manufacturers prevent hoarding by allocating drugs based on historical demand. Other pharmacists say it is natural to want to buy more to ensure supply.

“Why did it ever have to get to this point in the first place?” said Szandzik. “It takes a lot of hours, a lot of labor, a lot of luck to make sure our patients are safe. … And I don’t see it getting better for a while.”

(Reporting by Anna Yukhananov; Editing by Michele Gershberg and Jackie Frank)

Being overweight adds to your risk of getting breast cancer. It also increases your risk of recurring breast cancer. The problem is that chemo, medications and dealing with cancer suck the energy out of your body. Chronic fatigue is common in breast cancer patients. So how do you get fit while undergoing treatment?

Risk of Recurrence

For me, the risk of breast cancer recurring scares me to death. I have no intention of going through this again if it can be avoided. Part of my battle with breast cancer includes diet and exercise. I have informed my dietitian about my decision to change to a mostly vegetarian diet in order to lose weight and he is supportive of my decision.

Diet

My diet has changed completely since my mastectomy. I no longer eat chicken, pork or beef. Occasionally I will eat tuna or wild caught salmon. Going vegan is not an option for me–I could never totally remove all animal products from my diet.

In addition to changing what I eat–I changed how I eat. I am keeping to a fairly strict calorie count. Keeping a food diary helps tremendously. Knowing exactly how many calories you consume in a day helps to keep your eating under control. While my physicians are really not crazy about the idea of restricting calories while I am in treatment–their lack of support is overridden by fear of cancer returning. Getting to a healthy weight removes one risk factor for me. There is very little I can control with breast cancer. It is important for me to take control where I can–diet and certain risk factors are within my control.

Exercise

Prior to being diagnosed with breast cancer, I was fairly active. On weekends we would go hiking as a family and I miss that activity. About eight weeks after my mastectomy, I met with a physical therapist. She told me to restrict my activity levels and to make sure that my heart rate never went over 120 bpm. I was told to start out very slow–eight minutes on a treadmill working up to 15 minutes within a month. Who is that going to help? This advice might be suitable for a 90-year old woman recovering from cancer–but this would never work for me.

My oncologist and plastic surgeon have said I am able to do just about any activity that I want. I started walking again. When I feel good–I can go just about five miles. If it is a low-energy day, I walk two miles. I keep a decent pace when I walk–about a sixteen minute mile. My goal is to reach a 15-minute mile rate.

I use a heart rate monitor and watch to keep track of my heart rate and calorie burn. Controlling calorie intake and calories burned through exercise really helps keep my weight in check.

Results

I found that walking and eating better works well. Walking reduces my stress levels. My husband walks with me and it gives us alone time that we desperately need. He encourages me to walk even when my energy levels are low. I have lost weight and gained muscle by taking daily walks.

Eating healthier and reducing how much I eat makes me feel better. I cannot control what chemo does to my body but I can help counteract the negative side effects through good nutrition. Exercise will help rid my body of the toxins faster than sitting around doing nothing.

I plan to keep battling breast cancer using diet and exercise even after I finish treatment. Chemo ends this month for me and I have reconstruction surgery to look forward to. Eating healthy and staying active will decrease my recovery time and get me back to a somewhat normal life sooner than sitting on my butt.

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The data on PSA testing to detect prostate cancer has long been shaky — so much so that the discoverer of PSA (or prostate-specific antigen, an enzyme made by the prostate) himself decried the test two years ago as “hardly more effective than a coin toss.”

He characterized the widespread use of the cancer-screening tool as “a hugely expensive public health disaster.” This week, the U.S. National Preventive Services Task Force concurred, officially recommending against PSA screening for all healthy men of any age.

So why do people — particularly cancer patients and their advocates — continue to support the routine use of ineffective tests? In the case of PSA tests, positive results often lead to unnecessary and painful biopsies and the treatment of tumors that would never have harmed the patient anyway, further leading to side effects like infection, incontinence, impotence, even death.

Similarly, why do women resist recommendations to scale back routine breast cancer screening with mammography, when doing so would reduce their risk of unnecessary and painful interventions and treatments?

A new review explores some of the psychological reasons for the resistance, and offers a possible solution. The first reason, say researchers Hal Arkes of Ohio State University and Wolfgang Gaissmaier of the Max Planck Institute in Germany, is one that every journalist and medical quack knows well: a good anecdote often trumps even the most overwhelming statistics.

Prostate and breast cancer survivors and their families certainly have compelling stories, which are frequently given intense media attention, particularly when famous people, such as Rudy Guiliani or Warren Buffett, are affected.

But survivor stories don’t have to involve celebrities to make an impact. “Most people know someone — their mailman’s older brother — who had a positive PSA test and he’s still alive after treatment. So that shows the PSA test saved his life,” explains Arkes.

Research shows repeatedly that while a single story of an individual case will compel people to take action, cold statistics on hundreds of cases may make action less likely. This means that government task force guidelines — such as those on prostate cancer and breast cancer screening — based on data on thousands of cases may play less of a role in people’s medical decision-making than their knowledge of one case of someone they know. This is true whether the case represents a rare outcome or a common one.

“If you have a person standing in front of you who says, ‘I had my life saved by a PSA test,’ that’s powerful. It makes a big impression and hits you right on the retina, whereas if you see some statistic saying this many men had positive PSA tests and false-positive this and that, your eyes glaze over,” says Arkes.

Another reason people adhere to personal experience is that they have a deep-seated need for suffering to be meaningful. So, the more you have suffered or paid for an experience, the more valuable it becomes. The phenomenon applies to minor costs — research finds that people who paid more for the same dinner describe it as more enjoyable — as well as major ones. If you have endured surgery, chemo or radiation, and particularly if you have suffered terrible side effects as a result, you are more likely to believe that — despite what the statistics say — you were one of the lucky ones for whom treatment was lifesaving. You’ re not likely to believe that your pain was unnecessary.

This need for meaning is completely understandable and human, but it, too, can skew decision-making, especially when these stories feature prominently in a debate. Fortunately, there may be a relatively simple way to get around these quirks of human nature and help people make informed choices about complex issues including cancer screening.

(HEALTH SPECIAL: Cancer — The Screening Dilemma)

The authors of the new study cite previous research that asked people to make hypothetical choices for the treatment of heart disease. The participants were given information showing that one option had a 75% cure rate, while another had a 50% cure rate. They were also told anecdotes about other patients that either represented the data accurately or made it seem like the success rates of both options were equal. People who heard the misleading anecdotes were twice as likely to choose the less successful treatment option.

However, when participants were presented with a graphic representation of the cure rates — similar to the graphic, below, on outcomes of prostate cancer screening — they were not as swayed by misleading anecdotes. People tended to choose the more successful treatment option.

Other studies have also suggested that data visualization helps people better understand information, which has led to the development of drug fact boxes based on this principle.

Of course, most people remain terrified of cancer no matter what the data say, and so they may seek screening because it offers some sense of control. Using visual data that “hits the retina” like an anecdote could help people make critical choices that are actually better for their health.

The research was published in Psychological Science.

MORE: Q&A: Two Harvard Docs Talk About Making the Best Medical Choices

Maia Szalavitz is a health writer for TIME.com. Find her on Twitter at @maiasz. You can also continue the discussion on TIME Healthland‘s Facebook page and on Twitter at @TIMEHealthland.

Sorry, office drones, yet another study finds that your workspace is teeming with germs.

Elderly people have a distinct smell, confirm researchers at Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia, but contrary to stereotype their scent isn’t all bad.

Tuberculosis has been brought under control in much of the world, thanks to prevention practices and powerful antibiotics. But in poor nations like Peru, the disease still kills hundreds of babies and children — and new drug-resistant cases threaten an even bigger resurgence.


SAN FRANCISCO, May 30, 2012 /PRNewswire/ — Nektar Therapeutics’ (Nasdaq: NKTR) President and Chief Executive Officer, Howard W. Robin, is scheduled to present at the Jefferies 2012 Global Healthcare Conference at The Grand Hyatt New York on Tuesday, June 5, 2012 at 11:30 a.m. Eastern Time.

The presentation will be accessible via a Webcast through a link posted on the Investor Relations, Events Calendar section of the Nektar website http://www.nektar.com. This webcast will be available for replay until July 5, 2012.

About Nektar

Nektar Therapeutics is a biopharmaceutical company developing novel therapeutics based on its PEGylation and advanced polymer conjugation technology platforms. Nektar has a robust R&D pipeline of potentially high-value therapeutics in oncology, pain and other therapeutic areas. In the area of pain, Nektar has an exclusive worldwide license agreement with AstraZeneca for naloxegol (NKTR-118), an investigational drug candidate, which is being evaluated in Phase 3 clinical studies as a once- daily, oral tablet for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation. This agreement also includes NKTR-119, an earlier stage development program that is a co-formulation of naloxegol and an opioid.  NKTR-181, a novel mu-opioid analgesic in development to treat chronic pain, has completed Phase 1 development and is being prepared for a Phase 2 study.  NKTR-192, a novel mu-opioid analgesic in development to treat acute pain is in Phase 1 clinical development.  In oncology, etirinotecan pegol (NKTR-102) is being evaluated in a Phase 3 clinical study for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer and in Phase 2 studies for the treatment of ovarian and colorectal cancers.

Nektar’s technology has enabled eight approved products in the U.S. or Europe through partnerships with leading biopharmaceutical companies, including Affymax’s OMONTYS® for anemia, UCB’s Cimzia® for Crohn’s disease and rheumatoid arthritis, Roche’s PEGASYS® for hepatitis C and Amgen’s Neulasta® for neutropenia. Additional development-stage products that leverage Nektar’s proprietary technology platform include Baxter‘s BAX 855, a long-acting PEGylated rFVIII program, which is in Phase 1 clinical development.

Nektar is headquartered in San Francisco, California, with additional operations in Huntsville, Alabama and Hyderabad, India. Further information about the company and its drug development programs and capabilities may be found online at http://www.nektar.com.

Nektar Investor Inquiries:

… 

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NEW YORK, May 31, 2012 /PRNewswire/ — Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Global Markets for Media, Sera and Reagents in Biotechnology — Focus on the U.S.

http://www.reportlinker.com/p0870805/Global-Markets-for-Media-Sera-and-Reagents-in-Biotechnology—-Focus-on-the-US.html#utm_source=prnewswire&utm_medium=pr&utm_campaign=In_Vitro_Diagnostic

INTRODUCTION

STUDY OBJECTIVES

BCC’s goal in conducting this study is to provide an overview of the current and future characteristics of the global market for media, sera and the reagents used in biotechnology. The key objective is to present a comprehensive analysis of the current market and its future direction in the media, sera and biotechnology reagents markets as an important tool for the cell culture industry.

This report explores present and future strategies within the media and sera market, including reagents used in biotechnology. The improvisation of the market, the setbacks and the needs of the market are discussed in this report. The types of cell cultures and the products from cell culture technology are also presented in this report. The advantages and disadvantages for the use of various types of media are also covered in this report.

A detailed analysis of the cell culture industry structure has been conducted. This includes the biotechnology reagents, media and the sera used. Revenues are broken down by global region. Sales figures are estimated for the five-year period from 2011 through 2016.

Applications for the cell culture industry—media, sera and reagents used in biotechnology—are also discussed in the report, with an emphasis on the usage in the research, production and contract segments. The report also covers significant patents in each segment.

REASONS FOR DOING THIS STUDY

Demand for cell culture products, namely media, sera and reagents, is increasing, with the increasing demand for biopharmaceuticals. Cell culture, a crucial component of the life sciences industry, has witnessed major development during the past three decades. R&D spending, along with increasing competition, patent expiries, new technologies and an international marketplace are moving the cell culture process in a new direction. As cell culture technologies evolved, a number of disciplines such as cell biology, genetic engineering, protein chemistry, genomics and chemical engineering have been successfully incorporated into the cell culture field.

Acquisition strategies and collaborations by companies are also covered in this report. This study also discusses the strength and weaknesses of the different types of media used in light of the new technologies, growing competition and changing customer needs.

INTENDED AUDIENCE

This study contributes to the areas of market growth in the cell culture industry from the point of view of manufacturers and users. Biotechnological companies, physicians, the pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical industries, hospitals and research institutes will find this study to be of interest.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study encompasses the biotechnology, pharmaceutical and medical markets. BCC analyzes each market and its applications by its need for development of new medications through cell culture techniques, the regulatory environment, technology involved, market projections and market share. Technological issues include the latest trends and developments.

METHODOLOGY

BCC conducted a comprehensive literature search, which included technical newsletters and journals, and many other sources. Data was collected through interviews and correspondence with various analytical, chemical, pharmaceutical and biotechnical experts. Projections were based on estimates such as the current number of end users, potential end users, mergers and acquisitions, and market trends.

INFORMATION SOURCES

Many companies within the industry were surveyed to obtain data for this study. Included were manufacturers and end users of biopharmaceuticals, and pharmaceutical companies through their production, research and contract manufacturing/research lines. Data were gathered from various industry sources. BCC spoke with officials and physicians within the industry, consulted newsletters, company literature, product literature and a host of technical articles, journals, indexes and abstracts. Exhaustive investigations of databases by key terminology were completed. In addition, data were compiled from current financial, trade and government sources.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR

The study has been carried out by a team of professionals in the biotechnology industry. The project manager for this project is Shalini S. Dewan, who holds a Master’s degree in Pharmaceutical Chemistry and has more than 14 years of industry experience. Among the research topics she has covered are studies on compounds of potential pharmaceutical interest from ibuprofen and 2-naphthyl acetic acid. Shalini was awarded a Gold Medal by the Prime Minister of India for her work and has worked with top companies in India and in the U.S. Some of her other reports with BCC are Reagents for Chromatography; Spectroscopy, an Enduring Market; Advanced Drug Delivery Systems: Technologies and Global Markets; Orthopedic Drugs, Implants and Devices; Medical Imaging Reagents and Analysis Equipment; Pharmaceutical Regulatory Industry; The Dynamic Media, Sera and Reagent Market in Biotechnology; Contract Pharmaceutical Manufacturing, Research and Packaging: Global Markets; Chiral Technology: Global Markets; Autacoids and Related Drugs: Technologies and Global Markets; Contraceptives: Technologies and Global Markets; Liver Disease Treatments: The Global Market; Hormone Replacement Therapies and Other Hormone Therapies: Global Markets; Cardiovascular Medicine: Diagnostics, Drugs and Devices; and Cancer Therapies: Technologies and Global Markets.

The lead consultant for this project was Dr. Kapil A. Setia, who holds a doctoral degree in the life sciences. She has a number of research publications to her credit.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 1

STUDY OBJECTIVES 1

REASONS FOR DOING THIS STUDY 1

INTENDED AUDIENCE 2

SCOPE OF THE STUDY 2

METHODOLOGY 2

INFORMATION SOURCES 2

ABOUT THE AUTHOR 3

RELATED BCC RESEARCH REPORTS 3

BCC ONLINE SERVICES 3

DISCLAIMER 4

CHAPTER TWO: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5

SUMMARY TABLE GLOBAL REVENUES FROM MEDIA, SERA AND

REAGENTS USED IN THE BIOTECHNOLOGY MARKET,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 6

SUMMARY FIGURE GLOBAL REVENUES FROM MEDIA, SERA AND

REAGENTS USED IN THE BIOTECHNOLOGY MARKET, 2009-2016

($ MILLIONS) 6

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY (CONTINUED) 7

CHAPTER THREE: OVERVIEW 8

DEFINITIONS 8

HISTORY 8

TABLE 1 HISTORICAL EVENTS IN CELL CULTURE DEVELOPMENT 9

TABLE 1 (CONTINUED) 10

TYPES OF CELL CULTURES 10

PRIMARY CULTURES 10

TABLE 2 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF PRIMARY CELL

CULTURE 11

SECONDARY CELL CULTURE 11

CONTINUOUS CELL CULTURE 11

TABLE 3 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CONTINUOUS

CELL CULTURE 12

MORPHOLOGY OF CELLS IN CULTURE 12

FIBROBLASTIC CELLS 12

EPITHELIAL-LIKE CELLS 12

LYMPHOBLAST-LIKE CELLS 12

BASIC SYSTEMS FOR CELL CULTURE 12

TABLE 4 ADHERENT CULTURE VS SUSPENSION CULTURE 13

CELL LINE, CELL STRAIN AND TRANSFORMED CELL LINES 13

CHARACTERISTICS OF IMMORTALIZED CELL LINES 14

FACTORS AFFECTING CELL CULTURE 14

APPLICATIONS OF CELL CULTURE 15

MODEL SYSTEM 15

CANCER RESEARCH 15

VIROLOGY 15

TABLE 5 CULTURE MEDIA USED FOR THE PRODUCTION OF

VACCINES 16

TABLE 5 (CONTINUED) 17

GENETICALLY ENGINEERED PROTEINS 17

TABLE 6 POTENTIAL SOURCES OF CELL CULTURE ADDITIVES 18

Recombinant Thrombolytic Agents 19

TABLE 7 RECOMBINANT THROMBOLYTIC AGENTS 19

Recombinant Coagulation Factor 19

TABLE 8 RECOMBINANT COAGULATION FACTOR 20

Cytokines 20

Hematopoietic Growth Factors 21

Human Growth Hormones 22

Monoclonal Antibodies 22

TISSUE AND ORGAN REPLACEMENT 22

GENETIC COUNSELING 23

GENE THERAPY 23

PROBLEMS DURING CELL CULTURE 23

TOXICITY 23

MICROBIAL CONTAMINATION 23

Cross-Contamination 24

BASIC REQUIREMENTS OF CELL CULTURE 24

CELL CULTURE MEDIA 24

Basic Constituents of Media 24

Inorganic Salts 24

TABLE 9 THE ROLES OF DIFFERENT INORGANIC NUTRIENTS 25

Buffering Systems 25

Energy Source 26

Amino Acids 26

Vitamins 26

Proteins and Peptides 27

Fatty Acids and Lipids 27

Trace Elements 27

Antibiotics 28

TABLE 10 COMMONLY USED ANTIBIOTICS IN CELL CULTURES 28

Serum 29

Types of Cell Culture Media 29

Serum-Containing Media 29

TABLE 11 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SERUMCONTAINING

MEDIA 30

Serum-free Media 30

TABLE 12 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SERUM-FREE

MEDIA 31

Chemically Defined Media 31

Amino Acids 31

Carbohydrates 32

Inorganic Salts 32

Vitamins 32

Protein-Free Media 32

Selection of Cell Culture Media 33

Serum-Free Media: Reasons for Preference 33

Supplements for Serum-Free Media 33

Hormones 34

Transferrin 34

Lipids 34

Hydrolysates 35

SERUM 35

Role of Serum in Cell Culture 35

Serum Components 36

Growth Factors 36

Albumin 36

Protease Inhibitors 36

TABLE 13 NORMAL RANGE OF CONCENTRATION OF SERUM

CONSTITUENTS 36

TABLE 13 (CONTINUED) 37

Sources of Serum 37

Fetal Bovine Serum 37

Calf Serum 37

Calf Serum, Donor (Bovine) 37

Calf Serum, Newborn (Bovine) 37

Other Animal Sera 38

Chicken Serum 38

Dog Serum 38

Donor Donkey Serum 38

Donor Goat Serum 38

Donor Rat Serum 38

Rat Serum 38

Feline Serum 38

Guinea Pig Serum 39

Monkey Serum 39

Mouse Serum 39

Porcine Serum 39

Rabbit Serum 39

Sheep Serum 39

Horse Serum 39

Potential Problems with Serum 40

Serum Selection 40

CELL CULTURE REAGENTS 41

Amino Acids and Vitamins 41

Antibiotics and Antimycotics 41

Buffers 41

Cell Dissociation Agents 42

Growth Supplements 42

REGULATORY ASPECTS 42

APPROVALS OF BIOLOGICAL LICENSE APPLICATIONS 43

TABLE 14 APPROVALS OF BIOLOGICAL LICENSE APPLICATIONS,

2010 TO AUG 2011 43

TABLE 14 (CONTINUED) 44

ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS: BIOLOGICS 44

TABLE 15 ADMINISTRATIVE ACTIONS: BIOLOGICS, 2007 TO AUG

2011 44

TABLE 15 (CONTINUED) 45

TABLE 16 PRODUCT RECALLS, 2007 TO AUG 2011 46

TABLE 16 (CONTINUED) 47

TABLE 16 (CONTINUED) 48

LEADING MANUFACTURERS OF MEDIA 48

TABLE 17 LEADING MANUFACTURERS OF MEDIA 48

TABLE 17 (CONTINUED) 49

TABLE 17 (CONTINUED) 50

TABLE 17 (CONTINUED) 51

TABLE 17 (CONTINUED) 52

TABLE 17 (CONTINUED) 53

TABLE 17 (CONTINUED) 54

TABLE 18 LEADING MANUFACTURERS OF SERA 54

TABLE 18 (CONTINUED) 55

TABLE 18 (CONTINUED) 56

TABLE 19 LEADING MANUFACTURERS OF BIOLOGIC RESPONSE

MODIFIERS 57

TABLE 19 (CONTINUED) 58

TABLE 19 (CONTINUED) 59

TABLE 19 (CONTINUED) 60

TABLE 20 LEADING MANUFACTURERS OF CELL DISSOCIATION

REAGENTS 60

TABLE 20 (CONTINUED) 61

TABLE 21 LEADING MANUFACTURERS OF ANTIBIOTICS AND

ANTIMYCOTICS USED IN CELL CULTURE 62

TABLE 21 (CONTINUED) 63

TABLE 22 LEADING MANUFACTURERS OF OTHER REAGENTS 63

TABLE 22 (CONTINUED) 64

TABLE 22 (CONTINUED) 65

NEW DEVELOPMENTS 66

TABLE 23 NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE CELL CULTURE

INDUSTRY SINCE 2008 67

TABLE 23 (CONTINUED) 68

NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN APPLICATIONS 68

NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN APPLICATIONS (CONTINUED) 69

TABLE 24 NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN APPLICATION OF CELL

CULTURE 70

TABLE 24 (CONTINUED) 71

CHAPTER FOUR: GLOBAL MARKETS 72

GLOBAL MARKETS 72

GLOBAL MARKETS (CONTINUED) 73

TABLE 25 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CELL CULTURE PRODUCTS,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 74

FIGURE 1 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CELL CULTURE PRODUCTS,

2009-2016 ($ MILLIONS) 74

MEDIA 75

MARKET REVENUE 76

TABLE 26 GLOBAL MARKET FOR MEDIA USED IN

BIOTECHNOLOGY BY REGION, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 76

FIGURE 2 GLOBAL MARKET FOR MEDIA USED IN

BIOTECHNOLOGY BY REGION, 2009-2016 ($ MILLIONS) 77

MARKET SHARES 77

TABLE 27 GLOBAL BIOTECHNOLOGY MEDIA MARKET SHARES BY

REGION, 2010 (%) 77

FIGURE 3 GLOBAL BIOTECHNOLOGY MEDIA MARKET SHARES BY

REGION, 2010 (%) 78

SERUM-FREE MEDIA AND SERUM-REQUIRING MEDIA 78

Serum-Free Media Market Revenue 79

TABLE 28 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SERUM-FREE MEDIA BY REGION,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 79

FIGURE 4 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SERUM-FREE MEDIA BY REGION,

2009-2016 ($ MILLIONS) 79

Serum-Requiring Media Market Revenue 80

TABLE 29 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SERUM-REQUIRING MEDIA BY

REGION, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 80

FIGURE 5 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SERUM-REQUIRING MEDIA BY

REGION, 2009-2016 ($ MILLIONS) 81

POWDERED MEDIA AND LIQUID MEDIA 81

Powdered Media Market Revenue 82

TABLE 30 GLOBAL MARKET FOR POWDERED MEDIA, THROUGH

2016 ($ MILLIONS) 82

FIGURE 6 GLOBAL MARKET FOR POWDERED MEDIA, 2009-2016 ($

MILLIONS) 82

Liquid Media Market Revenue 83

TABLE 31 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIQUID MEDIA BY REGION,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 83

FIGURE 7 GLOBAL MARKET FOR LIQUID MEDIA BY REGION, 2009-

2016 ($ MILLIONS) 83

CLASSICAL AND SPECIALTY MEDIA 84

Classical Media Market Revenue 84

TABLE 32 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CLASSICAL MEDIA BY REGION,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 85

FIGURE 8 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CLASSICAL MEDIA BY REGION,

2009–2016 ($ MILLIONS) 85

Specialty Media Market Revenue 86

TABLE 33 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SPECIALTY MEDIA BY REGION,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 86

FIGURE 9 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SPECIALTY MEDIA BY REGION,

2009-2016 ($ MILLIONS) 86

SERA 87

MARKET REVENUE 88

TABLE 34 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SERA BY REGION, THROUGH

2016 ($ MILLIONS) 88

FIGURE 10 GLOBAL MARKET FOR SERA BY REGION, 2009–2016 ($

MILLIONS) 88

MARKET SHARES 89

TABLE 35 GLOBAL SERA MARKET SHARES BY REGION, 2010 (%) 89

FIGURE 11 GLOBAL SERA MARKET SHARES BY REGION, 2010 (%) 89

BOVINE SERA OR FETAL BOVINE SERA 90

TABLE 36 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BOVINE SERA BY REGION,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 90

FIGURE 12 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BOVINE SERA BY REGION, 2009–

2016 ($ MILLIONS) 91

OTHER SERA 91

TABLE 37 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OTHER SERA BY REGION,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 92

FIGURE 13 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OTHER SERA BY REGION, 2009-

2016 ($ MILLIONS) 92

REAGENTS 93

MARKET OVERVIEW 94

MARKET REVENUE 95

TABLE 38 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CELL CULTURE REAGENTS BY

REGION, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 95

FIGURE 14 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CELL CULTURE REAGENTS BY

REGION, 2009-2016 ($ MILLIONS) 96

MARKET SHARES 96

TABLE 39 GLOBAL CELL CULTURE REAGENT MARKET SHARES

BY REGION, 2010 (%) 96

FIGURE 15 GLOBAL CELL CULTURE REAGENT MARKET SHARES

BY REGION, 2010 (%) 97

BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE MODIFIERS 97

TABLE 40 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE

MODIFIERS BY REGION, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 97

FIGURE 16 GLOBAL MARKET FOR BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE

MODIFIERS BY REGION, 2009-2016 ($ MILLIONS) 98

Growth Factors 98

TABLE 41 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GROWTH FACTORS BY REGION,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 99

FIGURE 17 GLOBAL MARKET FOR GROWTH FACTORS BY REGION,

2009- 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 99

Cytokines 99

TABLE 42 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CYTOKINES BY REGION,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 100

FIGURE 18 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CYTOKINES BY REGION, 2009-

2016 ($ MILLIONS) 100

Other Biological Response Modifiers 100

TABLE 43 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OTHER BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE

MODIFIERS BY REGION, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 101

FIGURE 19 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OTHER BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE

MODIFIERS BY REGION, 2009-2016 ($ MILLIONS) 101

CELL DISSOCIATION REAGENTS 102

TABLE 44 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CELL DISSOCIATION REAGENTS

BY REGION, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 102

FIGURE 20 GLOBAL MARKET FOR CELL DISSOCIATION

REAGENTS BY REGION, 2009-2016 ($ MILLIONS) 102

OTHERS 103

TABLE 45 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OTHERS BY REGION, THROUGH

2016 ($ MILLIONS) 103

FIGURE 21 GLOBAL MARKET FOR OTHERS BY REGION, 2009-2016

($ MILLIONS) 104

CHAPTER FIVE: U S MARKET 105

TABLE 46 U S MARKET FOR CELL CULTURE PRODUCTS,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 105

FIGURE 22 U S MARKET FOR CELL CULTURE PRODUCTS, 2009-

2016 ($ MILLIONS) 106

MEDIA 106

MARKET OVERVIEW 106

Market Overview (Continued) 107

MARKET REVENUE 108

TABLE 47 U S MARKET FOR CELL CULTURE MEDIA, THROUGH

2016 ($ MILLIONS) 108

FIGURE 23 U S MARKET FOR CELL CULTURE MEDIA, 2009-2016 ($

MILLIONS) 109

SERUM-REQUIRING AND SERUM-FREE MEDIA 109

Market Revenue 110

TABLE 48 U S MARKET FOR SERUM-REQUIRING AND SERUMFREE

MEDIA, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 111

FIGURE 24 U S MARKET FOR SERUM-REQUIRING AND SERUMFREE

MEDIA, 2009-2016 ($ MILLIONS) 111

POWDERED AND LIQUID MEDIA 111

Market Revenue 112

TABLE 49 U S MARKET FOR POWDERED AND LIQUID MEDIA,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 112

FIGURE 25 U S MARKET FOR POWDERED AND LIQUID MEDIA,

2009-2016 ($ MILLIONS) 113

CLASSICAL AND SPECIALTY MEDIA 113

Market Revenue 114

TABLE 50 U S MARKET FOR CLASSICAL AND SPECIALTY MEDIA,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 114

FIGURE 26 U S MARKET FOR CLASSICAL AND SPECIALTY MEDIA,

2009-2016 ($ MILLIONS) 114

SERA 115

MARKET OVERVIEW 115

MARKET REVENUE 116

TABLE 51 U S MARKET FOR BOVINE AND OTHER SERA,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 116

FIGURE 27 U S MARKET FOR BOVINE AND OTHER SERA,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 117

REAGENTS 117

MARKET OVERVIEW 118

Market Overview (Continued) 119

MARKET REVENUE 120

TABLE 52 U S MARKET FOR CELL CULTURE REAGENTS,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 120

FIGURE 28 U S MARKET FOR CELL CULTURE REAGENTS, 2009-

2016 ($ MILLIONS) 120

BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE MODIFIERS 121

TABLE 53 U S MARKET FOR BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE MODIFIERS,

THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 122

FIGURE 29 U S MARKET FOR BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE

MODIFIERS, 2009-2016 ($ MILLIONS) 122

U S MARKET LEADERS 123

MEDIA 123

Serum-Free Media 123

TABLE 54 U S MARKET SHARES OF SERUM-FREE MEDIA, 2010 (%) 123

FIGURE 30 U S MARKET SHARES OF SERUM-FREE MEDIA, 2010

(%) 124

Serum-Requiring/Containing Media 124

TABLE 55 U S MARKET SHARES OF SERUM-CONTAINING MEDIA,

2010 (%) 124

FIGURE 31 U S MARKET SHARES OF SERUM-CONTAINING

MEDIA, 2010 (%) 125

Powdered Media 125

TABLE 56 U S MARKET SHARES OF POWDERED MEDIA, 2010 (%) 125

FIGURE 32 U S MARKET SHARES OF POWDERED MEDIA, 2010 (%) 126

Liquid Media 126

TABLE 57 U S MARKET SHARES OF LIQUID MEDIA, 2010 (%) 126

FIGURE 33 U S MARKET SHARES OF LIQUID MEDIA, 2010 (%) 127

Classical Media 127

TABLE 58 U S MARKET SHARES OF CLASSICAL MEDIA, 2010 (%) 127

FIGURE 34 U S MARKET SHARES OF CLASSICAL MEDIA, 2010 (%) 128

Specialty Media 128

TABLE 59 U S MARKET SHARES OF SPECIALTY MEDIA, 2010 (%) 128

FIGURE 35 U S MARKET SHARES OF SPECIALTY MEDIA, 2010 (%) 129

SERA 129

Bovine Sera 129

TABLE 60 U S MARKET SHARES OF BOVINE SERA, 2010 (%) 129

FIGURE 36 U S MARKET SHARES OF BOVINE SERA, 2010 (%) 130

Other Sera 130

TABLE 61 U S MARKET SHARES OF OTHER SERA, 2010 (%) 130

FIGURE 37 U S MARKET SHARES OF OTHER SERA, 2010 (%) 131

REAGENTS 131

Biological Response Modifiers 131

TABLE 62 U S MARKET SHARES OF BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE

MODIFIERS, 2010 (%) 132

FIGURE 38 U S MARKET SHARES OF BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE

MODIFIERS, 2010 (%) 132

Cell Dissociation Reagents 132

TABLE 63 U S MARKET SHARES OF CELL DISSOCIATION

REAGENTS, 2010 (%) 133

FIGURE 39 U S MARKET SHARES OF CELL DISSOCIATION

REAGENTS, 2010 (%) 133

Other Reagents 133

TABLE 64 U S MARKET SHARES OF OTHER REAGENTS, 2010 (%) 134

FIGURE 40 U S MARKET SHARES OF OTHER REAGENTS, 2010 (%) 134

CHAPTER SIX: END USERS 135

MARKET SHARE OF APPLICATIONS 135

TABLE 65 GLOBAL MEDIA, SERA AND REAGENT MARKET SHARES

BY END USER, 2010 (%) 136

FIGURE 41 GLOBAL MEDIA, SERA AND REAGENT MARKET

SHARES BY END USER, 2010 (%) 136

RESEARCH SEGMENT 136

RESEARCH SEGMENT (CONTINUED) 137

RESEARCH SEGMENT (CONTINUED) 138

MARKET REVENUE 139

TABLE 66 GLOBAL SALES OF MEDIA, SERA AND REAGENTS IN

THE RESEARCH SEGMENT, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 139

FIGURE 42 GLOBAL SALES OF MEDIA, SERA AND REAGENTS IN

THE RESEARCH SEGMENT, 2009-2016 ($ MILLIONS) 140

PRODUCTION SEGMENT 140

PRODUCTION SEGMENT (CONTINUED) 141

MARKET REVENUE 142

TABLE 67 GLOBAL SALES OF MEDIA, SERA AND REAGENTS IN

THE PRODUCTION SEGMENT, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 142

FIGURE 43 GLOBAL SALES OF MEDIA, SERA AND REAGENTS IN

THE PRODUCTION SEGMENT, 2009-2016 ($ MILLIONS) 143

CONTRACT SEGMENT 143

CONTRACT SEGMENT (CONTINUED) 144

MARKET REVENUE 145

TABLE 68 GLOBAL SALES OF MEDIA, SERA AND REAGENTS IN

THE CONTRACT SEGMENT, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 146

FIGURE 44 GLOBAL SALES OF MEDIA, SERA AND REAGENTS IN

THE CONTRACT SEGMENT, 2009-2016 ($ MILLIONS) 146

OTHERS SEGMENT 146

MARKET REVENUE 147

TABLE 69 GLOBAL SALES OF MEDIA, SERA AND REAGENTS IN

THE OTHERS SEGMENT, THROUGH 2016 ($ MILLIONS) 148

FIGURE 45 GLOBAL SALES OF MEDIA, SERA AND REAGENTS IN

THE OTHERS SEGMENT, 2009-2016 ($ MILLIONS) 148

CHAPTER SEVEN: PATENT ANALYSIS 149

PATENTS BY YEAR 149

TABLE 70 NUMBER OF U S PATENTS ISSUED BY YEAR, 2007 TO

OCT 2011 150

FIGURE 46 U S PATENTS ISSUED BY YEAR, 2007 TO OCT 2011 (%) 150

PATENTS BY TYPE 150

TABLE 71 PATENTS BY TYPE FOR MEDIA, SERA AND REAGENTS

USED IN BIOTECHNOLOGY, 2007–2011 151

FIGURE 47 PATENTS BY TYPE FOR MEDIA, SERA AND REAGENTS

USED IN BIOTECHNOLOGY, 2007–2011 (NO OF PATENTS) 151

PATENTS BY COMPANY 151

TABLE 72 U S PATENTS ISSUED FOR MEDIA, SERA AND

REAGENTS IN BIOTECHNOLOGY BY COMPANY, 2007 TO OCT

2011 (NO ) 152

PATENTS BY COUNTRY 153

TABLE 73 U S PATENTS ISSUED FOR MEDIA, SERA AND

REAGENTS USED IN BIOTECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY, 2007 TO

OCT 2011 (NO ) 153

TABLE 74 SHARES OF U S PATENTS ISSUED FOR MEDIA, SERA

AND REAGENTS USED IN BIOTECHNOLOGY BY COUNTRY,

2007–OCT 2011 (%) 154

PATENTS BY ASSIGNEE 154

TABLE 75 U S PATENTS ISSUED FOR MEDIA, SERA AND

REAGENTS USED IN BIOTECHNOLOGY BY TYPE OF END USER,

2007 TO OCT 2011 (NO ) 154

CHAPTER EIGHT: THE CURRENT SITUATION 155

REGIONAL MARKETS 155

UNITED STATES 155

EUROPE 156

ASIA 156

EMERGING MARKETS 157

TRENDS AND ISSUES IN THE CELL CULTURE MARKET 157

GLOBAL ECONOMY 157

INCREASED RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT BUDGET 157

TABLE 76 R&D BUDGETS OF TOP 10 COMPANIES IN 2009 AND 2010

($ BILLIONS) 158

GROWING DEMAND AND RICH PIPELINE OF

BIOTHERAPEUTICS 158

RESEARCH ON THERAPEUTIC VACCINES 159

BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH 160

STEM CELL RESEARCH 160

GOVERNMENT POLICIES ON RESEARCH 160

INNOVATIONS 161

ETHICAL AND ANIMAL WELFARE ISSUES 161

REGULATORY ISSUES 162

USE OF HUMAN BLOOD ALTERNATIVES 162

MERGERS, ACQUISITIONS AND ALLIANCES 163

SHIFT TOWARD CONTRACT MANUFACTURING 163


DUBLIN, Ohio, May 30, 2012 /PRNewswire/ — Cardinal Health Specialty Solutions today announced that it will share key findings from recently conducted cancer care research at the 48th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), taking place June 1-5, at McCormick Place in Chicago.

Cardinal Health Specialty Solutions partners with oncologists, rheumatologists and payors to manage clinical care pathways, or evidence-based treatment regimens, to improve the quality and costs of care provided to cancer and rheumatoid arthritis patients. Cardinal Health Specialty Solutions collaborated with a number of partners, including Georgia Care Specialists, CareFirst BlueCross BlueShield, BlueCross BlueShield of Michigan and Genomic Health to determine various patterns of patient care. Research from three of these studies will be highlighted via poster presentations at ASCO’s 2012 Annual Meeting; and three more of these studies will be shared with ASCO members in abstract form.

“As we work every day with healthcare professionals, payors and pharmaceutical companies to improve the quality and costs of cancer care, we’re also learning more about how new technologies, new reimbursement models and new tools like clinical pathways can impact the way cancer care is delivered,” said Meghan Fitzgerald, president of Cardinal Health Specialty Solutions. “We’re honored to work with our customers and partners to share some of these key research findings with the broader cancer care community at ASCO’s 2012 Annual Meeting.”

Research from Cardinal Health Specialty Solutions and partnering cancer care experts will be recognized at ASCO’s 2012 Annual Meeting via the following poster presentations:

  • Relationship between Oncotype DX® testing and the use of chemotherapy in high-risk patients (Abstract #6098) … 

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